As Sumerian towns grew into cities, the people needed a way to keep track of business transactions, ownership rights, and government records.
It was such a simple system of record keeping that sometimes the tokens had holes in them and were strung together in a necklace. Oftentimes, letters were introduced with a plea or threat to the scribes reading the letters to read them accurately. The alphabet also meant the uses of writing could expand to such things as literature, poetry, and history.
In the Sumerian writings these indigenous people from time to time state they were taught these things or based it on somethings they witnessed. Unlike those of the EgyptiansGreeks and RomansBabylonian numbers used a true place-value system, where digits written in the left column represented larger values, much as in the modern decimal system, although of course using base 60 not base This sexagesimal system became the standard number system in Sumer and Babylonia.
Originally the Sumerians made small tokens out of clay to represent the items.
The tokens were dispensed with, the envelope was flattened into a tablet, and writing was born. With the invention of wood-pulp paperthe cost of writing material began a steady decline.
Society was completely dependent on this narrow class of scribes to keep the machinery of government and business running smoothly. However, many Sumerian tablets have been deciphered.
With it, trade routes could expand and kings could keep the tax and census records necessary for expanding their city-states into empires.
Scribes would use the stylus to make wedge shaped marks in the clay.
Two subsequent inventions have built upon writing and expanded our capabilities as a species by quantum leaps beyond what they had been before: Egyptian government was more authoritarian than Sumerian government.
By about 2, BC some of the Sumerian glyphs were being used to represent sounds using the rebus principle. Cremony replied that he wrote words on the paper and sent it home. At least some of the examples we have appear to indicate problem-solving for its own sake rather than in order to resolve a concrete practical problem.
They used logic and recorded medical history to be able to diagnose and treat illnesses with various creams and pills. Over the course of the third millennium, these objects were replaced by cuneiform equivalents so that numbers could be written with the same stylus that was being used for the words in the text.
They may have even discovered the number for pi in figuring the circumference of a circle. The new concept quickly led to wheeled vehicles and mill wheels. Here the symbols can also mean something a bit more abstract than their literal meaning.
Although we generally give credit for the alphabet to the Phoenicians thus the term "phonetics"it seems the Egyptians also had an alphabet of sorts that the Phoenicians drew upon. Up till now, one related to what the symbols looked like to tell the meaning.
The Romans learned writing in about the 5th century BC from the Etruscan civilizationwho used one of a number of Italic scripts derived from the western Greeks.
A picture of legs can mean "legs" or "walk".The pyramids: showed Egyptian mastery of math.
Calendars, canals, chemistry, and medical advances showed their expertise in many areas. How did the invention of writing help make other Egyptian achievements possible?
The first examples of writing were pictograms used by temple officials to keep track of the inflows and outflows of the city's grain and animal stores which, in the bigger Sumerian urban centers.
The Egyptian cosmology, cosmogony, governmental hierarchy and administration, writing, dress, its concept of kingship - these were all things most definitely Egyptian, even if. Development Part of the development of hieroglyphics affected ancient Egyptian culture by allowing the transference of ideas.
This writing style allowed the ancient Egyptians to pass cultural messages and information from one generation to the next.
Rebus writing, by making the reader relate to the ears, not the eyes, made it possible to write just about anything. It was a complex system, however, since it required hundreds of symbols, one for each syllable used in a language.
Possibly the most important aspect of Sumerian culture, and the one that has had the most lasting impact on the modern world and history, was the innovation of the Sumerian system of writing.
The Sumerians writing system is called Cuneiform, or, "wedge shaped" writing.Download